Do you know what a coaxial cable is? And the composition of the coaxial cables? We tell you in this entry what is the basic functioning of this one, as well as the elements that compose it and how they work to achieve their objective, which is the transport of electronic information in a secure manner.

What is a coaxial cable?

The word coaxial is the result of a contraction of “common access” (coax),”common access” in our language. We see as well as main electronic components manufactured and distributed by Alfa’ r: coaxial cables and connectors.

The cable itself is used to carry electrical signals that are high frequency.

This one has two conductors that are concentric, the live one, also called soul, that is going to be the one that carries this information, and the armor, that will be in charge of making the earth reference, treating the return of the currents.

In some cases, this is replaced by fiber optic cable to handle very high frequencies, especially when it is necessary to cover kilometric extensions.

Parts of a coaxial cable

In the composition of a coaxial cable, four parts can be distinguished: core, dielectric, mesh and sheath.


The core of the coaxial cable is the central part we see if we look at a cross section of it. It is the one that will be in charge of transporting all the electronic signals that are nothing but the source of information.

It is solid and can consist of either a solid wire of ferrous wire or several copper wires that will be twisted together.


The dielectric is a layer that isolates the core of the next layer, which is the twisted wire mesh, i. e. it covers it.

The reason for this is that both parties do not react well when they come into contact, as a short circuit occurs. Thus, any signals or noise in the mesh would be able to pass through the copper wire.

The characteristics of this one are very variable, always depending on the available budget for the manufacture, and it is the most fragile part of the cable if we take into account the exposure of each one of these. Thus, a weak dielectric can cause the whole cable to work, partially or totally; hence the importance of always betting on quality coaxial cables.

Wire mesh

The twisted wire mesh isolates the core from the electrical noise and distortion produced by the other adjacent wires.

It acts as a dough and can be completed with a metal sheet, so that double shielding is achieved.

We are talking about braided wire mesh, but we also use rolled sheets or corrugated copper and aluminium pipes.


The covers are, on almost all occasions, made of rubber, plastic or Teflon; the coating.

They are used to surround the cable in such a way as to avoid possible electric shocks.

Thus, this is the composition of the coaxial cables and their basic operation.